Clindamycin Phosphate

Generic Name: Clindamycin Phosphate
Brand Name: DALADIC ®
Dosage Form: Injection 300 mg/2ml, 600 mg/4ml
Pharmacological Category: Lincomycin derivative
Therapeutic Category: Antibiotic
Pregnancy Category: Category B

Pharmacology

Clindamycin is widely distributed in body fluids and tissues (including bones). Approximately 10% of the biological activity is excreted in the urine. The average serum half-life after doses of clindamycin is approximately two hours in pediatric patients.
Serum half-life of clindamycin is increased slightly in patients with markedly reduced renal function. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are not effective in removing clindamycin from the serum.

Serum level studies with clindamycin in normal pediatric patients weighing 50–100 lbs given 2, 3 or 4 mg/kg every 6 hours (8, 12 or 16 mg/kg/day) demonstrated mean peak clindamycin serum levels of 1.24, 2.25 and 2.44 mcg/mL respectively, one hour after the first dose. By the fifth dose, the 6-hour serum concentration had reached equilibrium. Peak serum concentrations after this time would be about 2.46, 2.98 and 3.79 mcg/mL with doses of 8, 12 and 16 mg/kg/day, respectively. Serum levels have been uniform and predictable from person to person and dose to dose. Multiple-dose studies in neonates and infants up to 6 months of age show that the drug does not accumulate in the serum and is excreted rapidly. Serum levels exceed the MICs for most indicated organisms for at least six hours following administration of the usually recommended doses of clindamycin in adults and pediatric patients.
No significant levels of clindamycin are attained in the cerebrospinal fluid, even in the presence of inflamed meninges.

Pharmacokinetics:

Bioavailability
Following IM administration of clindamycin phosphate, peak serum concentrations occur within 3 hours in adults and 1 hour in children
Although peak plasma concentrations may be delayed, food does not have an appreciable effect on the extent of absorption of clindamycin .
Distributed into many body tissues and fluids.
Only small amounts of the drug diffuse into CSF.
Readily crosses the placenta and is distributed into milk.
Plasma Protein Binding: 93%
Partially metabolized to bioactive and inactive metabolites.
Excreted in urine, bile, and feces
Half-life: 2–3 hours in adults and children with normal renal function.
Serum half-life in neonates depends on gestational and chronologic age and body weight

Indications:

Clindamycin is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria
Clindamycin is also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of colitis before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (eg, erythromycin).

Anaerobes: Serious respiratory tract infections such as empyema, anaerobic pneumonitis and lung abscess; serious skin and soft tissue infections; septicemia; intra-abdominal infections such as peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess (typically resulting from anaerobic organisms resident in the normal gastrointestinal tract); infections of the female pelvis and genital tract such as endometritis, nongonococcal tuboovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection.

Streptococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Staphylococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Pneumococci: Serious respiratory tract infections.

Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clindamycin and other antibacterial drugs, clindamycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Contraindications:

Patients hypersensitive to clindamycin or lincomycin.

Precautions:

Review of experience to date suggests that a subgroup of older patients with associated severe illness may tolerate diarrhea less well. When clindamycin is indicated in these patients, they should be carefully monitored for change in bowel frequency.
Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.
Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in atopic individuals.
Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.
The use of clindamycin occasionally results in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms— particularly yeasts. Should superinfections occur, appropriate measures should be taken as indicated by the clinical situation.
Clindamycin dosage modification may not be necessary in patients with renal disease. In patients with moderate to severe liver disease, prolongation of clindamycin half-life has been found. However, it was postulated from studies that when given every eight hours, accumulation should rarely occur. Therefore, dosage modification in patients with liver disease may not be necessary. However, periodic liver enzyme determinations should be made when treating patients with severe liver disease.
Prescribing clindamycin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Drug Interactions:

Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents.
Antagonism has been demonstrated between clindamycin and erythromycin in vitro. Because of possible clinical significance, these two drugs should not be administered concurrently.

Side Effects:

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, pseudomembranous colitis, esophagitis, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea . The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment.

Hypersensitivity Reactions: Generalized mild to moderate morbilliform-like (maculopapular) skin rashes are the most frequently reported adverse reactions. Vesiculobullous rashes, as well as urticaria, have been observed during drug therapy. Rare instances of erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and a few cases of anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported.

Skin and Mucous Membranes: Pruritus, vaginitis, and rare instances of exfoliative dermatitis have been reported.

Liver: Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy.

Renal: Although no direct relationship of clindamycin to renal damage has been established, renal dysfunction as evidenced by azotemia, oliguria, and/or proteinuria has been observed in rare instances.

Hematopoietic: Transient neutropenia (leukopenia) and eosinophilia have been reported. Reports of agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia have been made. No direct etiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of the foregoing.
Musculoskeletal: Rare instances of polyarthritis have been reported.

Storage:

• Store below 30 C°
• Protect from light and freezing

Packing:

• Injection 300 mg/2ml, 600 mg/4ml: Box of 5 ampoules

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Image: 
Brand Name: 

DALADIC ®

Dosage Form: 

Injection 300 mg/2ml, 600 mg/4ml

Pharmacological Category: 

Lincomycin derivative

Therapeutic Category: 

Antibiotic

Pregnancy Category: 

Category B

Clindamycin is widely distributed in body fluids and tissues (including bones). Approximately 10% of the biological activity is excreted in the urine. The average serum half-life after doses of clindamycin is approximately two hours in pediatric patients.
Serum half-life of clindamycin is increased slightly in patients with markedly reduced renal function. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are not effective in removing clindamycin from the serum.

Serum level studies with clindamycin in normal pediatric patients weighing 50–100 lbs given 2, 3 or 4 mg/kg every 6 hours (8, 12 or 16 mg/kg/day) demonstrated mean peak clindamycin serum levels of 1.24, 2.25 and 2.44 mcg/mL respectively, one hour after the first dose. By the fifth dose, the 6-hour serum concentration had reached equilibrium. Peak serum concentrations after this time would be about 2.46, 2.98 and 3.79 mcg/mL with doses of 8, 12 and 16 mg/kg/day, respectively. Serum levels have been uniform and predictable from person to person and dose to dose. Multiple-dose studies in neonates and infants up to 6 months of age show that the drug does not accumulate in the serum and is excreted rapidly. Serum levels exceed the MICs for most indicated organisms for at least six hours following administration of the usually recommended doses of clindamycin in adults and pediatric patients.
No significant levels of clindamycin are attained in the cerebrospinal fluid, even in the presence of inflamed meninges.

Pharmacokinetics: 

Bioavailability
Following IM administration of clindamycin phosphate, peak serum concentrations occur within 3 hours in adults and 1 hour in children
Although peak plasma concentrations may be delayed, food does not have an appreciable effect on the extent of absorption of clindamycin .
Distributed into many body tissues and fluids.
Only small amounts of the drug diffuse into CSF.
Readily crosses the placenta and is distributed into milk.
Plasma Protein Binding: 93%
Partially metabolized to bioactive and inactive metabolites.
Excreted in urine, bile, and feces
Half-life: 2–3 hours in adults and children with normal renal function.
Serum half-life in neonates depends on gestational and chronologic age and body weight

Indications: 

Clindamycin is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria
Clindamycin is also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of colitis before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (eg, erythromycin).

Anaerobes: Serious respiratory tract infections such as empyema, anaerobic pneumonitis and lung abscess; serious skin and soft tissue infections; septicemia; intra-abdominal infections such as peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess (typically resulting from anaerobic organisms resident in the normal gastrointestinal tract); infections of the female pelvis and genital tract such as endometritis, nongonococcal tuboovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection.

Streptococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Staphylococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Pneumococci: Serious respiratory tract infections.

Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clindamycin and other antibacterial drugs, clindamycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Contraindications: 

Patients hypersensitive to clindamycin or lincomycin.

Precautions: 

Review of experience to date suggests that a subgroup of older patients with associated severe illness may tolerate diarrhea less well. When clindamycin is indicated in these patients, they should be carefully monitored for change in bowel frequency.
Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.
Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in atopic individuals.
Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.
The use of clindamycin occasionally results in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms— particularly yeasts. Should superinfections occur, appropriate measures should be taken as indicated by the clinical situation.
Clindamycin dosage modification may not be necessary in patients with renal disease. In patients with moderate to severe liver disease, prolongation of clindamycin half-life has been found. However, it was postulated from studies that when given every eight hours, accumulation should rarely occur. Therefore, dosage modification in patients with liver disease may not be necessary. However, periodic liver enzyme determinations should be made when treating patients with severe liver disease.
Prescribing clindamycin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Drug Interactions: 

Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents.
Antagonism has been demonstrated between clindamycin and erythromycin in vitro. Because of possible clinical significance, these two drugs should not be administered concurrently.

Side Effects: 

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, pseudomembranous colitis, esophagitis, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea . The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment.

Hypersensitivity Reactions: Generalized mild to moderate morbilliform-like (maculopapular) skin rashes are the most frequently reported adverse reactions. Vesiculobullous rashes, as well as urticaria, have been observed during drug therapy. Rare instances of erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and a few cases of anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported.

Skin and Mucous Membranes: Pruritus, vaginitis, and rare instances of exfoliative dermatitis have been reported.

Liver: Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy.

Renal: Although no direct relationship of clindamycin to renal damage has been established, renal dysfunction as evidenced by azotemia, oliguria, and/or proteinuria has been observed in rare instances.

Hematopoietic: Transient neutropenia (leukopenia) and eosinophilia have been reported. Reports of agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia have been made. No direct etiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of the foregoing.
Musculoskeletal: Rare instances of polyarthritis have been reported.

Storage: 

• Store below 30 C°
• Protect from light and freezing

Packing: 

• Injection 300 mg/2ml, 600 mg/4ml: Box of 5 ampoules

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DALADIC ®

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DALADIC ®

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Patients hypersensitive to clindamycin or lincomycin.

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Patients hypersensitive to clindamycin or lincomycin.

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Injection 300 mg/2ml, 600 mg/4ml

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Injection 300 mg/2ml, 600 mg/4ml

) ) [field_drug_interactions] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents. Antagonism has been demonstrated between clindamycin and erythromycin in vitro. Because of possible clinical significance, these two drugs should not be administered concurrently. [format] => 1 [safe] =>

Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents.
Antagonism has been demonstrated between clindamycin and erythromycin in vitro. Because of possible clinical significance, these two drugs should not be administered concurrently.

[view] =>

Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents.
Antagonism has been demonstrated between clindamycin and erythromycin in vitro. Because of possible clinical significance, these two drugs should not be administered concurrently.

) ) [field_indications] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

Clindamycin is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria
Clindamycin is also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of colitis before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (eg, erythromycin).


Anaerobes: Serious respiratory tract infections such as empyema, anaerobic pneumonitis and lung abscess; serious skin and soft tissue infections; septicemia; intra-abdominal infections such as peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess (typically resulting from anaerobic organisms resident in the normal gastrointestinal tract); infections of the female pelvis and genital tract such as endometritis, nongonococcal tuboovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection.


Streptococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Staphylococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Pneumococci: Serious respiratory tract infections.


Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clindamycin and other antibacterial drugs, clindamycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

[format] => 1 [safe] =>

Clindamycin is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria
Clindamycin is also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of colitis before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (eg, erythromycin).

Anaerobes: Serious respiratory tract infections such as empyema, anaerobic pneumonitis and lung abscess; serious skin and soft tissue infections; septicemia; intra-abdominal infections such as peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess (typically resulting from anaerobic organisms resident in the normal gastrointestinal tract); infections of the female pelvis and genital tract such as endometritis, nongonococcal tuboovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection.

Streptococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Staphylococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Pneumococci: Serious respiratory tract infections.

Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clindamycin and other antibacterial drugs, clindamycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

[view] =>

Clindamycin is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria
Clindamycin is also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of colitis before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (eg, erythromycin).

Anaerobes: Serious respiratory tract infections such as empyema, anaerobic pneumonitis and lung abscess; serious skin and soft tissue infections; septicemia; intra-abdominal infections such as peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess (typically resulting from anaerobic organisms resident in the normal gastrointestinal tract); infections of the female pelvis and genital tract such as endometritis, nongonococcal tuboovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection.

Streptococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Staphylococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Pneumococci: Serious respiratory tract infections.

Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clindamycin and other antibacterial drugs, clindamycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

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• Injection 300 mg/2ml, 600 mg/4ml: Box of 5 ampoules

[view] =>

• Injection 300 mg/2ml, 600 mg/4ml: Box of 5 ampoules

) ) [field_pdf] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [fid] => 161 [uid] => 1 [filename] => clindamycin.pdf [filepath] => sites/default/files/pdf/clindamycin.pdf [filemime] => application/pdf [filesize] => 473452 [status] => 1 [timestamp] => 1329483828 [list] => 1 [data] => [i18nsync] => 1 [nid] => 248 [view] => ) ) [field_pharmacokinetics] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => Bioavailability Following IM administration of clindamycin phosphate, peak serum concentrations occur within 3 hours in adults and 1 hour in children Although peak plasma concentrations may be delayed, food does not have an appreciable effect on the extent of absorption of clindamycin . Distributed into many body tissues and fluids. Only small amounts of the drug diffuse into CSF. Readily crosses the placenta and is distributed into milk. Plasma Protein Binding: 93% Partially metabolized to bioactive and inactive metabolites. Excreted in urine, bile, and feces Half-life: 2–3 hours in adults and children with normal renal function. Serum half-life in neonates depends on gestational and chronologic age and body weight [format] => 1 [safe] =>

Bioavailability
Following IM administration of clindamycin phosphate, peak serum concentrations occur within 3 hours in adults and 1 hour in children
Although peak plasma concentrations may be delayed, food does not have an appreciable effect on the extent of absorption of clindamycin .
Distributed into many body tissues and fluids.
Only small amounts of the drug diffuse into CSF.
Readily crosses the placenta and is distributed into milk.
Plasma Protein Binding: 93%
Partially metabolized to bioactive and inactive metabolites.
Excreted in urine, bile, and feces
Half-life: 2–3 hours in adults and children with normal renal function.
Serum half-life in neonates depends on gestational and chronologic age and body weight

[view] =>

Bioavailability
Following IM administration of clindamycin phosphate, peak serum concentrations occur within 3 hours in adults and 1 hour in children
Although peak plasma concentrations may be delayed, food does not have an appreciable effect on the extent of absorption of clindamycin .
Distributed into many body tissues and fluids.
Only small amounts of the drug diffuse into CSF.
Readily crosses the placenta and is distributed into milk.
Plasma Protein Binding: 93%
Partially metabolized to bioactive and inactive metabolites.
Excreted in urine, bile, and feces
Half-life: 2–3 hours in adults and children with normal renal function.
Serum half-life in neonates depends on gestational and chronologic age and body weight

) ) [field_pharmacological_category] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => Lincomycin derivative [format] => 1 [safe] =>

Lincomycin derivative

[view] =>

Lincomycin derivative

) ) [field_precautions] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => Review of experience to date suggests that a subgroup of older patients with associated severe illness may tolerate diarrhea less well. When clindamycin is indicated in these patients, they should be carefully monitored for change in bowel frequency. Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis. Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in atopic individuals. Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy. The use of clindamycin occasionally results in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms— particularly yeasts. Should superinfections occur, appropriate measures should be taken as indicated by the clinical situation. Clindamycin dosage modification may not be necessary in patients with renal disease. In patients with moderate to severe liver disease, prolongation of clindamycin half-life has been found. However, it was postulated from studies that when given every eight hours, accumulation should rarely occur. Therefore, dosage modification in patients with liver disease may not be necessary. However, periodic liver enzyme determinations should be made when treating patients with severe liver disease. Prescribing clindamycin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria. [format] => 1 [safe] =>

Review of experience to date suggests that a subgroup of older patients with associated severe illness may tolerate diarrhea less well. When clindamycin is indicated in these patients, they should be carefully monitored for change in bowel frequency.
Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.
Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in atopic individuals.
Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.
The use of clindamycin occasionally results in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms— particularly yeasts. Should superinfections occur, appropriate measures should be taken as indicated by the clinical situation.
Clindamycin dosage modification may not be necessary in patients with renal disease. In patients with moderate to severe liver disease, prolongation of clindamycin half-life has been found. However, it was postulated from studies that when given every eight hours, accumulation should rarely occur. Therefore, dosage modification in patients with liver disease may not be necessary. However, periodic liver enzyme determinations should be made when treating patients with severe liver disease.
Prescribing clindamycin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

[view] =>

Review of experience to date suggests that a subgroup of older patients with associated severe illness may tolerate diarrhea less well. When clindamycin is indicated in these patients, they should be carefully monitored for change in bowel frequency.
Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.
Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in atopic individuals.
Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.
The use of clindamycin occasionally results in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms— particularly yeasts. Should superinfections occur, appropriate measures should be taken as indicated by the clinical situation.
Clindamycin dosage modification may not be necessary in patients with renal disease. In patients with moderate to severe liver disease, prolongation of clindamycin half-life has been found. However, it was postulated from studies that when given every eight hours, accumulation should rarely occur. Therefore, dosage modification in patients with liver disease may not be necessary. However, periodic liver enzyme determinations should be made when treating patients with severe liver disease.
Prescribing clindamycin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

) ) [field_pregnancy_category] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => Category B [format] => 1 [safe] =>

Category B

[view] =>

Category B

) ) [field_references] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => [format] => [safe] => [view] => ) ) [field_side_effects] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] =>

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, pseudomembranous colitis, esophagitis, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea . The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment.


Hypersensitivity Reactions: Generalized mild to moderate morbilliform-like (maculopapular) skin rashes are the most frequently reported adverse reactions. Vesiculobullous rashes, as well as urticaria, have been observed during drug therapy. Rare instances of erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and a few cases of anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported.


Skin and Mucous Membranes: Pruritus, vaginitis, and rare instances of exfoliative dermatitis have been reported.


Liver: Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy.


Renal: Although no direct relationship of clindamycin to renal damage has been established, renal dysfunction as evidenced by azotemia, oliguria, and/or proteinuria has been observed in rare instances.


Hematopoietic: Transient neutropenia (leukopenia) and eosinophilia have been reported. Reports of agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia have been made. No direct etiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of the foregoing.
Musculoskeletal: Rare instances of polyarthritis have been reported.

[format] => 1 [safe] =>

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, pseudomembranous colitis, esophagitis, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea . The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment.

Hypersensitivity Reactions: Generalized mild to moderate morbilliform-like (maculopapular) skin rashes are the most frequently reported adverse reactions. Vesiculobullous rashes, as well as urticaria, have been observed during drug therapy. Rare instances of erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and a few cases of anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported.

Skin and Mucous Membranes: Pruritus, vaginitis, and rare instances of exfoliative dermatitis have been reported.

Liver: Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy.

Renal: Although no direct relationship of clindamycin to renal damage has been established, renal dysfunction as evidenced by azotemia, oliguria, and/or proteinuria has been observed in rare instances.

Hematopoietic: Transient neutropenia (leukopenia) and eosinophilia have been reported. Reports of agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia have been made. No direct etiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of the foregoing.
Musculoskeletal: Rare instances of polyarthritis have been reported.

[view] =>

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, pseudomembranous colitis, esophagitis, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea . The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment.

Hypersensitivity Reactions: Generalized mild to moderate morbilliform-like (maculopapular) skin rashes are the most frequently reported adverse reactions. Vesiculobullous rashes, as well as urticaria, have been observed during drug therapy. Rare instances of erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and a few cases of anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported.

Skin and Mucous Membranes: Pruritus, vaginitis, and rare instances of exfoliative dermatitis have been reported.

Liver: Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy.

Renal: Although no direct relationship of clindamycin to renal damage has been established, renal dysfunction as evidenced by azotemia, oliguria, and/or proteinuria has been observed in rare instances.

Hematopoietic: Transient neutropenia (leukopenia) and eosinophilia have been reported. Reports of agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia have been made. No direct etiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of the foregoing.
Musculoskeletal: Rare instances of polyarthritis have been reported.

) ) [field_storage] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [value] => • Store below 30 C° • Protect from light and freezing [format] => 1 [safe] =>

• Store below 30 C°
• Protect from light and freezing

[view] =>

• Store below 30 C°
• Protect from light and freezing

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Antibiotic

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Antibiotic

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Image: 
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DALADIC ®

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DALADIC ®

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DALADIC ®

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DALADIC ®

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Brand Name: 

DALADIC ®

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Injection 300 mg/2ml, 600 mg/4ml

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Injection 300 mg/2ml, 600 mg/4ml

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Injection 300 mg/2ml, 600 mg/4ml

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Injection 300 mg/2ml, 600 mg/4ml

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Dosage Form: 

Injection 300 mg/2ml, 600 mg/4ml

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Lincomycin derivative

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Lincomycin derivative

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Lincomycin derivative

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Lincomycin derivative

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Pharmacological Category: 

Lincomycin derivative

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Antibiotic

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Antibiotic

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Antibiotic

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Antibiotic

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Therapeutic Category: 

Antibiotic

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Category B

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Category B

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Category B

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Category B

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Pregnancy Category: 

Category B

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Clindamycin is widely distributed in body fluids and tissues (including bones). Approximately 10% of the biological activity is excreted in the urine. The average serum half-life after doses of clindamycin is approximately two hours in pediatric patients.
Serum half-life of clindamycin is increased slightly in patients with markedly reduced renal function. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are not effective in removing clindamycin from the serum.

Serum level studies with clindamycin in normal pediatric patients weighing 50–100 lbs given 2, 3 or 4 mg/kg every 6 hours (8, 12 or 16 mg/kg/day) demonstrated mean peak clindamycin serum levels of 1.24, 2.25 and 2.44 mcg/mL respectively, one hour after the first dose. By the fifth dose, the 6-hour serum concentration had reached equilibrium. Peak serum concentrations after this time would be about 2.46, 2.98 and 3.79 mcg/mL with doses of 8, 12 and 16 mg/kg/day, respectively. Serum levels have been uniform and predictable from person to person and dose to dose. Multiple-dose studies in neonates and infants up to 6 months of age show that the drug does not accumulate in the serum and is excreted rapidly. Serum levels exceed the MICs for most indicated organisms for at least six hours following administration of the usually recommended doses of clindamycin in adults and pediatric patients.
No significant levels of clindamycin are attained in the cerebrospinal fluid, even in the presence of inflamed meninges.

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Bioavailability
Following IM administration of clindamycin phosphate, peak serum concentrations occur within 3 hours in adults and 1 hour in children
Although peak plasma concentrations may be delayed, food does not have an appreciable effect on the extent of absorption of clindamycin .
Distributed into many body tissues and fluids.
Only small amounts of the drug diffuse into CSF.
Readily crosses the placenta and is distributed into milk.
Plasma Protein Binding: 93%
Partially metabolized to bioactive and inactive metabolites.
Excreted in urine, bile, and feces
Half-life: 2–3 hours in adults and children with normal renal function.
Serum half-life in neonates depends on gestational and chronologic age and body weight

[#delta] => 0 ) [#title] => [#description] => [#theme_used] => 1 [#printed] => 1 [#type] => [#value] => [#prefix] => [#suffix] => [#children] =>

Bioavailability
Following IM administration of clindamycin phosphate, peak serum concentrations occur within 3 hours in adults and 1 hour in children
Although peak plasma concentrations may be delayed, food does not have an appreciable effect on the extent of absorption of clindamycin .
Distributed into many body tissues and fluids.
Only small amounts of the drug diffuse into CSF.
Readily crosses the placenta and is distributed into milk.
Plasma Protein Binding: 93%
Partially metabolized to bioactive and inactive metabolites.
Excreted in urine, bile, and feces
Half-life: 2–3 hours in adults and children with normal renal function.
Serum half-life in neonates depends on gestational and chronologic age and body weight

) [#title] => [#description] => [#children] =>

Bioavailability
Following IM administration of clindamycin phosphate, peak serum concentrations occur within 3 hours in adults and 1 hour in children
Although peak plasma concentrations may be delayed, food does not have an appreciable effect on the extent of absorption of clindamycin .
Distributed into many body tissues and fluids.
Only small amounts of the drug diffuse into CSF.
Readily crosses the placenta and is distributed into milk.
Plasma Protein Binding: 93%
Partially metabolized to bioactive and inactive metabolites.
Excreted in urine, bile, and feces
Half-life: 2–3 hours in adults and children with normal renal function.
Serum half-life in neonates depends on gestational and chronologic age and body weight

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Bioavailability
Following IM administration of clindamycin phosphate, peak serum concentrations occur within 3 hours in adults and 1 hour in children
Although peak plasma concentrations may be delayed, food does not have an appreciable effect on the extent of absorption of clindamycin .
Distributed into many body tissues and fluids.
Only small amounts of the drug diffuse into CSF.
Readily crosses the placenta and is distributed into milk.
Plasma Protein Binding: 93%
Partially metabolized to bioactive and inactive metabolites.
Excreted in urine, bile, and feces
Half-life: 2–3 hours in adults and children with normal renal function.
Serum half-life in neonates depends on gestational and chronologic age and body weight

[#printed] => 1 ) [#title] => [#description] => [#children] =>
Pharmacokinetics: 

Bioavailability
Following IM administration of clindamycin phosphate, peak serum concentrations occur within 3 hours in adults and 1 hour in children
Although peak plasma concentrations may be delayed, food does not have an appreciable effect on the extent of absorption of clindamycin .
Distributed into many body tissues and fluids.
Only small amounts of the drug diffuse into CSF.
Readily crosses the placenta and is distributed into milk.
Plasma Protein Binding: 93%
Partially metabolized to bioactive and inactive metabolites.
Excreted in urine, bile, and feces
Half-life: 2–3 hours in adults and children with normal renal function.
Serum half-life in neonates depends on gestational and chronologic age and body weight

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Clindamycin is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria
Clindamycin is also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of colitis before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (eg, erythromycin).


Anaerobes: Serious respiratory tract infections such as empyema, anaerobic pneumonitis and lung abscess; serious skin and soft tissue infections; septicemia; intra-abdominal infections such as peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess (typically resulting from anaerobic organisms resident in the normal gastrointestinal tract); infections of the female pelvis and genital tract such as endometritis, nongonococcal tuboovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection.


Streptococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Staphylococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Pneumococci: Serious respiratory tract infections.


Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clindamycin and other antibacterial drugs, clindamycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

[format] => 1 [safe] =>

Clindamycin is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria
Clindamycin is also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of colitis before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (eg, erythromycin).

Anaerobes: Serious respiratory tract infections such as empyema, anaerobic pneumonitis and lung abscess; serious skin and soft tissue infections; septicemia; intra-abdominal infections such as peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess (typically resulting from anaerobic organisms resident in the normal gastrointestinal tract); infections of the female pelvis and genital tract such as endometritis, nongonococcal tuboovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection.

Streptococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Staphylococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Pneumococci: Serious respiratory tract infections.

Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clindamycin and other antibacterial drugs, clindamycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

[#delta] => 0 ) [#title] => [#description] => [#theme_used] => 1 [#printed] => 1 [#type] => [#value] => [#prefix] => [#suffix] => [#children] =>

Clindamycin is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria
Clindamycin is also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of colitis before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (eg, erythromycin).

Anaerobes: Serious respiratory tract infections such as empyema, anaerobic pneumonitis and lung abscess; serious skin and soft tissue infections; septicemia; intra-abdominal infections such as peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess (typically resulting from anaerobic organisms resident in the normal gastrointestinal tract); infections of the female pelvis and genital tract such as endometritis, nongonococcal tuboovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection.

Streptococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Staphylococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Pneumococci: Serious respiratory tract infections.

Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clindamycin and other antibacterial drugs, clindamycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

) [#title] => [#description] => [#children] =>

Clindamycin is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria
Clindamycin is also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of colitis before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (eg, erythromycin).

Anaerobes: Serious respiratory tract infections such as empyema, anaerobic pneumonitis and lung abscess; serious skin and soft tissue infections; septicemia; intra-abdominal infections such as peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess (typically resulting from anaerobic organisms resident in the normal gastrointestinal tract); infections of the female pelvis and genital tract such as endometritis, nongonococcal tuboovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection.

Streptococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Staphylococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Pneumococci: Serious respiratory tract infections.

Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clindamycin and other antibacterial drugs, clindamycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

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Clindamycin is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria
Clindamycin is also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of colitis before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (eg, erythromycin).

Anaerobes: Serious respiratory tract infections such as empyema, anaerobic pneumonitis and lung abscess; serious skin and soft tissue infections; septicemia; intra-abdominal infections such as peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess (typically resulting from anaerobic organisms resident in the normal gastrointestinal tract); infections of the female pelvis and genital tract such as endometritis, nongonococcal tuboovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection.

Streptococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Staphylococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Pneumococci: Serious respiratory tract infections.

Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clindamycin and other antibacterial drugs, clindamycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

[#printed] => 1 ) [#title] => [#description] => [#children] =>
Indications: 

Clindamycin is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria
Clindamycin is also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of colitis before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (eg, erythromycin).

Anaerobes: Serious respiratory tract infections such as empyema, anaerobic pneumonitis and lung abscess; serious skin and soft tissue infections; septicemia; intra-abdominal infections such as peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess (typically resulting from anaerobic organisms resident in the normal gastrointestinal tract); infections of the female pelvis and genital tract such as endometritis, nongonococcal tuboovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection.

Streptococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Staphylococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Pneumococci: Serious respiratory tract infections.

Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clindamycin and other antibacterial drugs, clindamycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

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Patients hypersensitive to clindamycin or lincomycin.

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Patients hypersensitive to clindamycin or lincomycin.

) [#title] => [#description] => [#children] =>

Patients hypersensitive to clindamycin or lincomycin.

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Patients hypersensitive to clindamycin or lincomycin.

[#printed] => 1 ) [#title] => [#description] => [#children] =>
Contraindications: 

Patients hypersensitive to clindamycin or lincomycin.

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Review of experience to date suggests that a subgroup of older patients with associated severe illness may tolerate diarrhea less well. When clindamycin is indicated in these patients, they should be carefully monitored for change in bowel frequency.
Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.
Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in atopic individuals.
Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.
The use of clindamycin occasionally results in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms— particularly yeasts. Should superinfections occur, appropriate measures should be taken as indicated by the clinical situation.
Clindamycin dosage modification may not be necessary in patients with renal disease. In patients with moderate to severe liver disease, prolongation of clindamycin half-life has been found. However, it was postulated from studies that when given every eight hours, accumulation should rarely occur. Therefore, dosage modification in patients with liver disease may not be necessary. However, periodic liver enzyme determinations should be made when treating patients with severe liver disease.
Prescribing clindamycin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

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Review of experience to date suggests that a subgroup of older patients with associated severe illness may tolerate diarrhea less well. When clindamycin is indicated in these patients, they should be carefully monitored for change in bowel frequency.
Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.
Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in atopic individuals.
Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.
The use of clindamycin occasionally results in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms— particularly yeasts. Should superinfections occur, appropriate measures should be taken as indicated by the clinical situation.
Clindamycin dosage modification may not be necessary in patients with renal disease. In patients with moderate to severe liver disease, prolongation of clindamycin half-life has been found. However, it was postulated from studies that when given every eight hours, accumulation should rarely occur. Therefore, dosage modification in patients with liver disease may not be necessary. However, periodic liver enzyme determinations should be made when treating patients with severe liver disease.
Prescribing clindamycin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

) [#title] => [#description] => [#children] =>

Review of experience to date suggests that a subgroup of older patients with associated severe illness may tolerate diarrhea less well. When clindamycin is indicated in these patients, they should be carefully monitored for change in bowel frequency.
Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.
Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in atopic individuals.
Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.
The use of clindamycin occasionally results in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms— particularly yeasts. Should superinfections occur, appropriate measures should be taken as indicated by the clinical situation.
Clindamycin dosage modification may not be necessary in patients with renal disease. In patients with moderate to severe liver disease, prolongation of clindamycin half-life has been found. However, it was postulated from studies that when given every eight hours, accumulation should rarely occur. Therefore, dosage modification in patients with liver disease may not be necessary. However, periodic liver enzyme determinations should be made when treating patients with severe liver disease.
Prescribing clindamycin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

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Review of experience to date suggests that a subgroup of older patients with associated severe illness may tolerate diarrhea less well. When clindamycin is indicated in these patients, they should be carefully monitored for change in bowel frequency.
Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.
Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in atopic individuals.
Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.
The use of clindamycin occasionally results in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms— particularly yeasts. Should superinfections occur, appropriate measures should be taken as indicated by the clinical situation.
Clindamycin dosage modification may not be necessary in patients with renal disease. In patients with moderate to severe liver disease, prolongation of clindamycin half-life has been found. However, it was postulated from studies that when given every eight hours, accumulation should rarely occur. Therefore, dosage modification in patients with liver disease may not be necessary. However, periodic liver enzyme determinations should be made when treating patients with severe liver disease.
Prescribing clindamycin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

[#printed] => 1 ) [#title] => [#description] => [#children] =>
Precautions: 

Review of experience to date suggests that a subgroup of older patients with associated severe illness may tolerate diarrhea less well. When clindamycin is indicated in these patients, they should be carefully monitored for change in bowel frequency.
Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.
Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in atopic individuals.
Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.
The use of clindamycin occasionally results in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms— particularly yeasts. Should superinfections occur, appropriate measures should be taken as indicated by the clinical situation.
Clindamycin dosage modification may not be necessary in patients with renal disease. In patients with moderate to severe liver disease, prolongation of clindamycin half-life has been found. However, it was postulated from studies that when given every eight hours, accumulation should rarely occur. Therefore, dosage modification in patients with liver disease may not be necessary. However, periodic liver enzyme determinations should be made when treating patients with severe liver disease.
Prescribing clindamycin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

[#printed] => 1 ) [field_drug_interactions] => Array ( [#type_name] => product [#context] => full [#field_name] => field_drug_interactions [#post_render] => Array ( [0] => content_field_wrapper_post_render ) [#weight] => 9 [field] => Array ( [#description] => [items] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [#formatter] => default [#node] => stdClass Object *RECURSION* [#type_name] => product [#field_name] => field_drug_interactions [#weight] => 0 [#theme] => text_formatter_default [#item] => Array ( [value] => Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents. Antagonism has been demonstrated between clindamycin and erythromycin in vitro. Because of possible clinical significance, these two drugs should not be administered concurrently. [format] => 1 [safe] =>

Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents.
Antagonism has been demonstrated between clindamycin and erythromycin in vitro. Because of possible clinical significance, these two drugs should not be administered concurrently.

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Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents.
Antagonism has been demonstrated between clindamycin and erythromycin in vitro. Because of possible clinical significance, these two drugs should not be administered concurrently.

) [#title] => [#description] => [#children] =>

Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents.
Antagonism has been demonstrated between clindamycin and erythromycin in vitro. Because of possible clinical significance, these two drugs should not be administered concurrently.

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Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents.
Antagonism has been demonstrated between clindamycin and erythromycin in vitro. Because of possible clinical significance, these two drugs should not be administered concurrently.

[#printed] => 1 ) [#title] => [#description] => [#children] =>
Drug Interactions: 

Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents.
Antagonism has been demonstrated between clindamycin and erythromycin in vitro. Because of possible clinical significance, these two drugs should not be administered concurrently.

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Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, pseudomembranous colitis, esophagitis, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea . The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment.


Hypersensitivity Reactions: Generalized mild to moderate morbilliform-like (maculopapular) skin rashes are the most frequently reported adverse reactions. Vesiculobullous rashes, as well as urticaria, have been observed during drug therapy. Rare instances of erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and a few cases of anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported.


Skin and Mucous Membranes: Pruritus, vaginitis, and rare instances of exfoliative dermatitis have been reported.


Liver: Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy.


Renal: Although no direct relationship of clindamycin to renal damage has been established, renal dysfunction as evidenced by azotemia, oliguria, and/or proteinuria has been observed in rare instances.


Hematopoietic: Transient neutropenia (leukopenia) and eosinophilia have been reported. Reports of agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia have been made. No direct etiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of the foregoing.
Musculoskeletal: Rare instances of polyarthritis have been reported.

[format] => 1 [safe] =>

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, pseudomembranous colitis, esophagitis, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea . The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment.

Hypersensitivity Reactions: Generalized mild to moderate morbilliform-like (maculopapular) skin rashes are the most frequently reported adverse reactions. Vesiculobullous rashes, as well as urticaria, have been observed during drug therapy. Rare instances of erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and a few cases of anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported.

Skin and Mucous Membranes: Pruritus, vaginitis, and rare instances of exfoliative dermatitis have been reported.

Liver: Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy.

Renal: Although no direct relationship of clindamycin to renal damage has been established, renal dysfunction as evidenced by azotemia, oliguria, and/or proteinuria has been observed in rare instances.

Hematopoietic: Transient neutropenia (leukopenia) and eosinophilia have been reported. Reports of agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia have been made. No direct etiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of the foregoing.
Musculoskeletal: Rare instances of polyarthritis have been reported.

[#delta] => 0 ) [#title] => [#description] => [#theme_used] => 1 [#printed] => 1 [#type] => [#value] => [#prefix] => [#suffix] => [#children] =>

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, pseudomembranous colitis, esophagitis, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea . The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment.

Hypersensitivity Reactions: Generalized mild to moderate morbilliform-like (maculopapular) skin rashes are the most frequently reported adverse reactions. Vesiculobullous rashes, as well as urticaria, have been observed during drug therapy. Rare instances of erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and a few cases of anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported.

Skin and Mucous Membranes: Pruritus, vaginitis, and rare instances of exfoliative dermatitis have been reported.

Liver: Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy.

Renal: Although no direct relationship of clindamycin to renal damage has been established, renal dysfunction as evidenced by azotemia, oliguria, and/or proteinuria has been observed in rare instances.

Hematopoietic: Transient neutropenia (leukopenia) and eosinophilia have been reported. Reports of agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia have been made. No direct etiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of the foregoing.
Musculoskeletal: Rare instances of polyarthritis have been reported.

) [#title] => [#description] => [#children] =>

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, pseudomembranous colitis, esophagitis, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea . The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment.

Hypersensitivity Reactions: Generalized mild to moderate morbilliform-like (maculopapular) skin rashes are the most frequently reported adverse reactions. Vesiculobullous rashes, as well as urticaria, have been observed during drug therapy. Rare instances of erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and a few cases of anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported.

Skin and Mucous Membranes: Pruritus, vaginitis, and rare instances of exfoliative dermatitis have been reported.

Liver: Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy.

Renal: Although no direct relationship of clindamycin to renal damage has been established, renal dysfunction as evidenced by azotemia, oliguria, and/or proteinuria has been observed in rare instances.

Hematopoietic: Transient neutropenia (leukopenia) and eosinophilia have been reported. Reports of agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia have been made. No direct etiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of the foregoing.
Musculoskeletal: Rare instances of polyarthritis have been reported.

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Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, pseudomembranous colitis, esophagitis, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea . The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment.

Hypersensitivity Reactions: Generalized mild to moderate morbilliform-like (maculopapular) skin rashes are the most frequently reported adverse reactions. Vesiculobullous rashes, as well as urticaria, have been observed during drug therapy. Rare instances of erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and a few cases of anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported.

Skin and Mucous Membranes: Pruritus, vaginitis, and rare instances of exfoliative dermatitis have been reported.

Liver: Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy.

Renal: Although no direct relationship of clindamycin to renal damage has been established, renal dysfunction as evidenced by azotemia, oliguria, and/or proteinuria has been observed in rare instances.

Hematopoietic: Transient neutropenia (leukopenia) and eosinophilia have been reported. Reports of agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia have been made. No direct etiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of the foregoing.
Musculoskeletal: Rare instances of polyarthritis have been reported.

[#printed] => 1 ) [#title] => [#description] => [#children] =>
Side Effects: 

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, pseudomembranous colitis, esophagitis, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea . The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment.

Hypersensitivity Reactions: Generalized mild to moderate morbilliform-like (maculopapular) skin rashes are the most frequently reported adverse reactions. Vesiculobullous rashes, as well as urticaria, have been observed during drug therapy. Rare instances of erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and a few cases of anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported.

Skin and Mucous Membranes: Pruritus, vaginitis, and rare instances of exfoliative dermatitis have been reported.

Liver: Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy.

Renal: Although no direct relationship of clindamycin to renal damage has been established, renal dysfunction as evidenced by azotemia, oliguria, and/or proteinuria has been observed in rare instances.

Hematopoietic: Transient neutropenia (leukopenia) and eosinophilia have been reported. Reports of agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia have been made. No direct etiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of the foregoing.
Musculoskeletal: Rare instances of polyarthritis have been reported.

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• Store below 30 C°
• Protect from light and freezing

[#delta] => 0 ) [#title] => [#description] => [#theme_used] => 1 [#printed] => 1 [#type] => [#value] => [#prefix] => [#suffix] => [#children] =>

• Store below 30 C°
• Protect from light and freezing

) [#title] => [#description] => [#children] =>

• Store below 30 C°
• Protect from light and freezing

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• Store below 30 C°
• Protect from light and freezing

[#printed] => 1 ) [#title] => [#description] => [#children] =>
Storage: 

• Store below 30 C°
• Protect from light and freezing

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• Injection 300 mg/2ml, 600 mg/4ml: Box of 5 ampoules

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• Injection 300 mg/2ml, 600 mg/4ml: Box of 5 ampoules

) [#title] => [#description] => [#children] =>

• Injection 300 mg/2ml, 600 mg/4ml: Box of 5 ampoules

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• Injection 300 mg/2ml, 600 mg/4ml: Box of 5 ampoules

[#printed] => 1 ) [#title] => [#description] => [#children] =>
Packing: 

• Injection 300 mg/2ml, 600 mg/4ml: Box of 5 ampoules

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Image: 
Brand Name: 

DALADIC ®

Dosage Form: 

Injection 300 mg/2ml, 600 mg/4ml

Pharmacological Category: 

Lincomycin derivative

Therapeutic Category: 

Antibiotic

Pregnancy Category: 

Category B

Clindamycin is widely distributed in body fluids and tissues (including bones). Approximately 10% of the biological activity is excreted in the urine. The average serum half-life after doses of clindamycin is approximately two hours in pediatric patients.
Serum half-life of clindamycin is increased slightly in patients with markedly reduced renal function. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are not effective in removing clindamycin from the serum.

Serum level studies with clindamycin in normal pediatric patients weighing 50–100 lbs given 2, 3 or 4 mg/kg every 6 hours (8, 12 or 16 mg/kg/day) demonstrated mean peak clindamycin serum levels of 1.24, 2.25 and 2.44 mcg/mL respectively, one hour after the first dose. By the fifth dose, the 6-hour serum concentration had reached equilibrium. Peak serum concentrations after this time would be about 2.46, 2.98 and 3.79 mcg/mL with doses of 8, 12 and 16 mg/kg/day, respectively. Serum levels have been uniform and predictable from person to person and dose to dose. Multiple-dose studies in neonates and infants up to 6 months of age show that the drug does not accumulate in the serum and is excreted rapidly. Serum levels exceed the MICs for most indicated organisms for at least six hours following administration of the usually recommended doses of clindamycin in adults and pediatric patients.
No significant levels of clindamycin are attained in the cerebrospinal fluid, even in the presence of inflamed meninges.

Pharmacokinetics: 

Bioavailability
Following IM administration of clindamycin phosphate, peak serum concentrations occur within 3 hours in adults and 1 hour in children
Although peak plasma concentrations may be delayed, food does not have an appreciable effect on the extent of absorption of clindamycin .
Distributed into many body tissues and fluids.
Only small amounts of the drug diffuse into CSF.
Readily crosses the placenta and is distributed into milk.
Plasma Protein Binding: 93%
Partially metabolized to bioactive and inactive metabolites.
Excreted in urine, bile, and feces
Half-life: 2–3 hours in adults and children with normal renal function.
Serum half-life in neonates depends on gestational and chronologic age and body weight

Indications: 

Clindamycin is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria
Clindamycin is also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of colitis before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (eg, erythromycin).

Anaerobes: Serious respiratory tract infections such as empyema, anaerobic pneumonitis and lung abscess; serious skin and soft tissue infections; septicemia; intra-abdominal infections such as peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess (typically resulting from anaerobic organisms resident in the normal gastrointestinal tract); infections of the female pelvis and genital tract such as endometritis, nongonococcal tuboovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection.

Streptococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Staphylococci: Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Pneumococci: Serious respiratory tract infections.

Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clindamycin and other antibacterial drugs, clindamycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Contraindications: 

Patients hypersensitive to clindamycin or lincomycin.

Precautions: 

Review of experience to date suggests that a subgroup of older patients with associated severe illness may tolerate diarrhea less well. When clindamycin is indicated in these patients, they should be carefully monitored for change in bowel frequency.
Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.
Clindamycin should be prescribed with caution in atopic individuals.
Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy.
The use of clindamycin occasionally results in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms— particularly yeasts. Should superinfections occur, appropriate measures should be taken as indicated by the clinical situation.
Clindamycin dosage modification may not be necessary in patients with renal disease. In patients with moderate to severe liver disease, prolongation of clindamycin half-life has been found. However, it was postulated from studies that when given every eight hours, accumulation should rarely occur. Therefore, dosage modification in patients with liver disease may not be necessary. However, periodic liver enzyme determinations should be made when treating patients with severe liver disease.
Prescribing clindamycin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Drug Interactions: 

Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents.
Antagonism has been demonstrated between clindamycin and erythromycin in vitro. Because of possible clinical significance, these two drugs should not be administered concurrently.

Side Effects: 

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, pseudomembranous colitis, esophagitis, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea . The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment.

Hypersensitivity Reactions: Generalized mild to moderate morbilliform-like (maculopapular) skin rashes are the most frequently reported adverse reactions. Vesiculobullous rashes, as well as urticaria, have been observed during drug therapy. Rare instances of erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and a few cases of anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported.

Skin and Mucous Membranes: Pruritus, vaginitis, and rare instances of exfoliative dermatitis have been reported.

Liver: Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy.

Renal: Although no direct relationship of clindamycin to renal damage has been established, renal dysfunction as evidenced by azotemia, oliguria, and/or proteinuria has been observed in rare instances.

Hematopoietic: Transient neutropenia (leukopenia) and eosinophilia have been reported. Reports of agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia have been made. No direct etiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of the foregoing.
Musculoskeletal: Rare instances of polyarthritis have been reported.

Storage: 

• Store below 30 C°
• Protect from light and freezing

Packing: 

• Injection 300 mg/2ml, 600 mg/4ml: Box of 5 ampoules

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Address: No.1, Beastoon Ave., Dr. Fatemi Sq., Tehran1431663135 Iran
Tel: (+98 21)-889 65323
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Tel: (+98 131) 338-2511- 8
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